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What is HbA1c?

Your HbA1c number

Consider your HbA1c number (also known as "A1c" or "glycated hemoglobin") as a snapshot of your blood glucose levels over two to three months. Over time, glucose naturally attaches itself to your red blood cells. When this happens, the cell is considered "glycated". The more glucose in your blood, the more glycated HbA1c you have in your cells.

What’s an optimal HbA1c number?

The recommended A1c target for a person living with diabetes is 7% or lower1,2 —some people remember this figure as "lucky number 7".

What does HbA1c number not show?

While your HbA1c number gives you and your doctor an idea of how your diabetes is being managed over time, it does not tell you about drastic drops and elevations in your day-to-day blood glucose levels during that period.

How do fluctuations in my blood glucose levels affect my overall health?

While drops (hypoglycemia) and peaks (hyperglycemia) in your blood glucose levels outside of your target zone can have an immediate impact on your sense of well-being, research shows that the long-term consequences of such fluctuations can be dangerous. Studies show that hyperglycemia can increase your risk of developing heart, eye and kidney disease3. Your HbA1c is an important part of your diabetes management, but it cannot replace daily self-monitoring, which highlights how your body and blood glucose respond to meals, physical activity, medications, illness and stress over short periods of time.

How often should I test my HbA1c?

Generally, you should test your HbA1c no less than twice a year4. Most healthcare professionals suggest testing every three months, which is the approximate lifespan of blood cells. Speak with your healthcare professional to determine where and how frequently you should test your HbA1c level.

Reducing your HbA1c value to a healthier level can decrease your risk of many diabetes-related complications, so you can live a fuller, healthier life.


1. Singapore Healthhub, what is HbA1c? (Accessed Aug 2021)

2. Singhealth HealthExchange, Diabetes HbA1c test. Why is it important Aug 2021) and American Diabetes Association (n.d) Understanding A1c (Accessed Aug 2021)

3. National Centre for Biotechnology Information. The Impact of Diabetes Mellitus and Corresponding HbA1c Levels on the Future Risks of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality: A Representative Cohort Study in Taiwan Published online 2015 April (Accessed Aug 2021)

4. Singapore General Hospital, Take Control of Diabetes (Accessed Aug 2021)

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